First Online: 19 September 2017
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: Dr. Coughlin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Kasner reports grants from WL Gore, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhim, personal fees from Bristol Meyers Squibb, personal fees from Bayer, grants from Acorda, personal fees from Medtronic, personal fees from UpToDate, grants from SanBio, and grants from AZ Therapies, outside the submitted work. Dr. Kumar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Patel has nothing to disclose. Dr. Hoffman has nothing to disclose.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: Regarding the retrospective portion of this project, for this type of study formal consent is not required. Regarding the prospective quality improvement portion of this project, it was approved by the University of Pennsylvania’s IRB as a quality improvement project and thus did not require formal consent of patients involved.
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