Funding for this research was provided by:
Cambridge Commonwealth, European and International Trust (10465227)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-12-03
First Online: 3 December 2019
Conflicts of interest
: Peter Smielewski and Marek Czosnyka declare interest in part of the licensing fee for the ICM + software. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
: This manuscript complies with all instructions to authors. Authorship requirements have been met by all co-authors, and the final version of this manuscript has been approved by all listed authors. This work has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. Since all data were extracted from routine hospital records and fully anonymized before analysis, the need for formal review and consent was waived. Such research use of routine clinical data, originally collected as part of ongoing clinical care, without the intention of using it for research at the time of collection, complies with UK Governance Arrangements for Research Ethics Committees (GAfREC), 2018 [CitationRef removed], and this was reconfirmed through electronic communication with the UK National Health Service Health Research Authority (document on file).