Funding for this research was provided by:
National Key R&D Program (2016YFC0106500)
National Major Scientific Research Instrument Development Project (81627805)
NSFC-GD Union Foundation (U1401254)
National High-tech R&D Program of China (2006AA022346, 2012AA021105)
National Natural Science Foundation of China (81600510)
Received: 25 December 2019
Accepted: 4 May 2020
First Online: 7 July 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Chihua Fang, Jihyun An, Antonio Bruno, Xiujun Cai, Jia Fan, Jiro Fujimoto, Rita Golfieri, Xishan Hao, Hongchi Jiang, Long R. Jiao, Anand V. Kulkarni, Hauke Lang, Cosmas Rinaldi A. Lesmana, Qiang Li, Lianxin Liu, Yingbin Liu, Wanyee Lau, Qiping Lu, Kwan Man, Hitoshi Maruyama, Cristina Mosconi, Necati Örmeci, Michael Pavlides, Guilherme Rezende, Joo Hyun Sohn, Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Valérie Vilgrain, Hao Wen, Sai Wen, Xianyao Quan, Rafael Ximenes, Yinmo Yang, Bixiang Zhang, Weiqi Zhang, Peng Zhang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Xiaolong Qi have any potential conflict to disclose (financial, professional, or personal) relevant to the manuscript.
: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science for studies published from Jan 1, 2001, to March 1, 2019, with the search strategy: (“three dimensional visualization” OR “imaging, three-dimensional”) AND (“liver neoplasms” OR “hepatocellular carcinoma” OR “HCC” OR “hepatolithiasis” OR “hilar cholangiocarcinoma” OR “hepatic venous pressure gradient” OR “HVPG” OR liver transplantation) AND (“diagnosis” OR “treatment” OR “surgery”). Articles published in either English or Chinese were included. Duplicated results from the databases were removed. Inclusion criteria were: studies on diagnosis and management of 3D visualization in hepatology; and studies using 3D reconstruction imaging as a useful tool for preoperative evaluation, operation planning, and intraoperative guidance. Exclusion criteria were: commentaries and case reports; studies published in languages other than English or Chinese; and studies carried out in children.
: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.