Funding for this research was provided by:
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (None)
U.S. Mineral Management Service (No. 14-12-0001-30355 and 30393)
Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación of Panama (none)
Received: 5 December 2019
Revised: 27 February 2020
Accepted: 5 March 2020
First Online: 6 April 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: No animal testing was performed during this study.
: All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgments. The study is compliant with CBD protocols.
: The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicity available, since they are part of an ongoing monitoring survey, but will be made available by the first author on reasonable request.
: HMG and EW conceived and designed the research. SK conducted the data analysis. HMG and SK wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.