Funding for this research was provided by:
The YMER-80 Foundation
The Lennander Foundation
The Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation
Wilhelm and Martina Lundgren's Science Fund
University of Gothenburg
Received: 2 July 2020
Revised: 30 April 2021
Accepted: 17 May 2021
First Online: 28 June 2021
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: No animal testing was performed during this study.
: All necessary permits for sampling and observational field studies have been obtained by the authors from the competent authorities and are mentioned in the acknowledgements, if applicable. The cruise and sampling permits were administered by the Swedish Polar Secretariat.
: The data is available from the authors upon request.
: AW performed sampling and collected the data during the expedition and was responsible for analyses and planning of the phytoplankton part of the field survey. MO processed and plotted the data and wrote a draft version of the manuscript. Both authors contributed during the writing process and have approved the final version of the manuscript.