Funding for this research was provided by:
Garfield Weston Foundation
Mrs Gladys Row Fogo Charitable Trust
Austrian Neurological Society
Received: 23 April 2019
Revised: 27 August 2019
Accepted: 20 September 2019
First Online: 8 November 2019
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: The study was approved by the Lothian Ethics of Medical Research Committee (REC 09/81101/54) and the NHS Lothian R + D Office (2009/W/NEU/14). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: Thomas Gattringer received research funding from the Austrian Neurological Society (research stay at the University of Edinburgh, UK). Fergus Doubal is supported by a Garfield Weston Foundation Stroke Association Lectureship. Maria Valdes Hernandez, Anna Heye, Paul A Armitage, Stephen Makin, Francesca Chappell, Daniela Pinter, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, and Joanna M Wardlaw declare that they have no conflict of interest.