Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 28 April 2020
Accepted: 20 July 2020
First Online: 26 August 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Hiroko Matsumoto, PhDc: Grants from Scoliosis Research Society, grants from Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America. David L. Skaggs, MD, MMM: CHLA Foundation: Board or committee member; Grand Rounds: Paid consultant; Green Sun Medical: Stock or stock Options; Growing Spine Foundation: Board or committee member; Growing Spine Study Group: Board or committee member; Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics: Editorial or governing board; Medtronic: Other financial or material support; Nuvasive (Co-PI, Paid to Growing Spine Foundation): Research support; Orthobullets: Editorial or governing board; Paid consultant; Stock or stock Options; Orthopedics Today: Editorial or governing board; Spine Deformity: Editorial or governing board; Wolters Kluwer Health: Publishing royalties, financial or material support; ZimmerBiomet: IP royalties; Other financial or material support; Paid consultant; Paid presenter or speaker; Zipline Medical, Inc.: Stock or stock Options. Behrooz A. Akbarnia, MD: Grants, Royalties, Consultant: Nuvasive, Royalties: DePuy Synthes, Royalties: K2M, Stock/Stock options: Viseon, NociMed, grants from SeaSpine. Jeff B. Pawelek, BS: Volunteer board member, San Diego Spine Foundation. Tricia St. Hilaire, MPH: No conflicts of interest to disclose. Sonya Levine, BA: No conflicts of interest to disclose. Peter Sturm, MD, MBA: Personal fees and surgical advisory board from DePuy Synthes Spine, Consultant: NuVasive, Shareholder: Green Sun Medical, Editorial board: Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics. Francisco Javier Sanchez Perez-Grueso, MD: No conflicts of interest to disclose. Scott J. Luhmann, MD: Personal fees from Stryker, Medtronic, Orthopaediatrics, Globus, Wolters Kluwer, and Wishbone. Paul D. Sponseller, MD, MBA: Grants and personal fees from DePuy Synthes, personal fees from Globus, and Orthopediatrics. John T. Smith, MD: Royalties: Globus, Consultant: Nuvasive, Wishbone, Green Sun Medical, Board of Directors: Scoliosis Research Society, Children’s Spine Foundation. Klane K. White, MD: Grants and personal fees from Biomarin, grants from Ultragenyx, grants from Ascendis, grants from Theracon, personal fees from UptoDate.com. Michael G. Vitale, MD, MPH: Grants from Children’s Spine Foundation, grants from Orthopaedic Scientific Research Foundation, grants from SRS, grants from POSNA, Consultant: Stryker, Biomet, NuVasive, Royalties: Biomet. Pediatric Spine Study Group: Research support from POSNA, FDA, NuVasive, DePuy Synthes Spine, Growing Spine Foundation, Children’s Spine Foundation.
: Informed consent has been obtained from the participants and/or a waiver of consent has been obtained.