Received: 19 May 2020
Accepted: 28 September 2020
First Online: 9 October 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Jeffrey Gum: Acuity: IP royalties; Paid consultant, American Journal of Orthopedics: Editorial or governing board, Cingulate Therapeutics: Stock or stock Options, DePuy, A Johnson & Johnson Company: Paid presenter or speaker, K2M: Paid consultant, MAZOR Surgical Technologies: Paid consultant, Medtronic: Paid consultant, Nuvasive: IP royalties; Paid consultant, Stryker: Paid presenter or speaker, The Spine Journal—Reviewer: Editorial or governing board. Leah Yacat Carreon: Editorial Advisory Board Spine, The Spine Journal: Editorial or governing board, National Spine Health Foundation: Paid consultant, Norton Healthcare: Employee, Spine Deformity: Editorial or governing board, University of Louisville Institutional Review Board: Board or committee member, University of Southern Denmark: Employee. Steven D Glassman: K2M: Paid consultant, Medtronic: IP royalties; Paid consultant, Scoliosis Research Society: Board or committee member. Authors Institution receives research support from OREF, ISSG, Pfizer, TSRH, Cerapedics, SRS, Medtronic, Empirical Spine, IntelliRod, Alan L & Jacqueline B Stuart Research Foundation: Research support.
: No Institutional Board Review was sought as the project is not considered research and does not directly involve humans or animals.
: No informed consent was sought as the project did not directly involve humans