Funding for this research was provided by:
Austrian Science Fund (J4259-B27)
Austrian Science Fund
Received: 27 April 2021
Accepted: 23 July 2021
First Online: 20 September 2021
: SDC is Professor of Neurobiology (in Psychiatry) in the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University Irving Medical Center and Research Scientist VI at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Each year she typically receives small honoraria for her services on behalf of the U.S. federal government (e.g., grant reviews) and from academic medical centers (e.g., providing grand rounds). In the past three years, she has provided consulting and advisory board services to pharmaceutical and health services companies (Alkermes, Charleston Labs, Clinilabs, Collegium, Epiodyne, Mallinckrodt, Nektar, Opiant, Osmotica, Otsuka, Sun Pharma), her university has received research contracts from companies for drug-related research for which she serves as Principal, Co-Principal, or Co-Investigator (Alkermes, BioXcel, Corbus, GoMedical, Intra-cellular Therapies, Lyndra, and Janssen), and she received honoraria for writing critical reviews for the World Health Organization. JDJ is the recipient of an investigator-initiated grant from Merck Pharmaceuticals and, in the past three years, has served as a paid consultant for Alkermes. LB, TY, ANCC, MTS, and SM declare that they have no competing interests.
: All study procedures were approved by the New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) Institutional Review Board (IRB protocol #7785). All participants (OEND trainers and trainees) provided informed consent to participate in the study. For OEND trainers, a member of the study staff signed study consent with them. Trainees who were eligible for and interested in participating in the study provided verbal consent to complete the questionnaire survey and to training observation by a member of the research team.