Received: 10 September 2020
Accepted: 30 November 2020
First Online: 15 January 2021
Compliance with ethical standards
: Both authors are fellows at the Centre for the Future of Intelligence (University of Cambridge). During the writing of this paper, Charlotte Stix acted as Coordinator of the European Commission’s High Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence. She does not disclose or use any confidential information they were privy to during that time, and hence does not identify a conflict of interest between that role and her ongoing academic research. Matthijs Maas does not identify a conflict of interest.