First Online: 10 June 2014
: C.H. is President of the International Scientific Association Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP). G.R.G. is past-President of ISAPP. G.R. is a member of the board of directors of ISAPP. F.G. is a member of the scientific committee of the Instituto Danone (Barcelona, Spain). D.J.M. has served as an expert witness on behalf of probiotic companies in class action lawsuits; the author declares that he is bound by confidentiality agreements preventing disclosure of his competing interests. B.P. has received research support from Roquette Frères, Pilèje, Lesaffre, Vésale Pharma, BioProx; provided training for Yakult Belgium, Danone Belgium; and consulted with Global Alliance for Probiotics, but has no ownership role with any company. He serves as Director of Business Development for Applied Maths. L.M. serves as an officer of the Scientific Board of the Italian branch of the Danone Institute. P.C.C. serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Danone Research Center in Specialised Nutrition, acts a consultant to Chr Hansen, receives speaking honouraria from Danone, and has research funding from Beghin-Meiji. M.E.S. is Chief Science Officer of the ISAPP and consults for California Dairy Research Foundation, Dannon, Danone, New Chapter and Yakult, but has no ownership role with any company. S.S. is a member of the working group on novel foods for the European Food Safety Authority; past member of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; past member of the probiotic working group for ILSI Europe; scientific fellow of the Australia New Zealand Food Authority; and member of the board of the board of ISAPP. R.B.C. and H.J.F. declare no competing interests.