Received: 11 December 2017
Revised: 17 April 2018
Accepted: 20 May 2018
First Online: 6 July 2018
Compliance with ethical standards
: Arne Astrup received an honorarium from Pfizer to review the literature on nutrient deficiencies in obesity and for the development of this manuscript. He has received research grant support from Arla Foods, Danish Dairy Research Foundation, Global Dairy Platform, Danish Agriculture and Food Council and GEIE European Milk Forum. He is an advisor to BioCare Copenhagen, Dutch Beer Institute, Feast Kitchen A/S, Groupe Ethique et Santé, IKEA, McCain Foods Limited, Zaluvida and Weight Watchers. He is a consultant for Basic Research, Beachbody, Gelesis, Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Nestlé Research Center, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Saniona, Sanofi Aventis, S-Biotek, Scandinavian Airlines System and Tetra Pak. He receives honoraria as Associate Editor of <i>The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition</i> and for membership of the Editorial Board of <i>Annals of Nutrition</i> and of <i>Metabolism and Annual Review of Nutrition</i>. Susanne Bügel, who did not receive an honorarium from Pfizer in connection with the development of this manuscript, has received research grants from The Software AG Foundation and ERASMUS+. She is a board member of Food, Quality and Health and the Federation of European Nutrition Societies and as such receives travel support for meetings supported by these organizations.