Received: 14 May 2019
Revised: 25 November 2019
Accepted: 7 January 2020
First Online: 16 January 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: This study was funded by a grant to the Medical University of South Carolina from WW (formerly Weight Watchers). TAW, KF, RFK, WTG, DMR, RJM, DW, and WJR received funding from MUSC to conduct this research at their sites. PMO has received this and other research support from WW. At the time of this study, JLV, KM-K and SLR were employees of WW and held WW stock. KM-K and SLR are listed on WW patents.