Received: 10 November 2017
Revised: 28 February 2018
Accepted: 1 March 2018
First Online: 27 March 2018
: The authors declare no competing interests.
: The UK Biobank study was approved by the North West Multi-Centre Research Ethics Committee (reference number 06/MRE09/65), and at recruitment all participants gave informed consent to participate in UK Biobank and be followed up, using a signature capture device.
: This work was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource (application number 25331). We thank Scott Wood and John Pearson from QIMR Berghofer for IT support.