Received: 28 November 2018
Revised: 22 March 2019
Accepted: 28 March 2019
First Online: 22 May 2019
: Dr. Fuchs reports consulting role for Agios, Bain Capital, Bayer, Celgene, Dicerna, Five Prime Therapeutics, Gilead Sciences, Eli Lilly, Entrinsic Health, Genentech, KEW, Merck, Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Sanofi, Taiho, and Unum Therapeutics. He also serves as a Director for CytomX Therapeutics and owns unexercised stock options for CytomX and Entrinsic Health. Dr. Meyerhardt reports consulting role for Ignyta, COTA, Taiho Pharmaceutical (all <$5 K). All other authors declare no competing interests relevant in relation to the work described.
: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and those of participating registries as required. Completion of the questionnaire was considered to imply informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: Further information including the procedures to obtain and access data from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study is described at ExternalRef removed (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) and ExternalRef removed.
: This work is published under the standard license to publish agreement. After 12 months the work will become freely available and the license terms will switch to a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
: The Nurses’ Health Study II was funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (UM1 CA176726 to WW). Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende receives a doctoral fellowship from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) and the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), grant #2016/21390–0 and #2014/25614-4. NCI grants R03 CA197879 to KW, R21 CA222940 to K.W. and Reiko Nishihara, R21 CA230873 to K.W. and S.O., R35 CA197735 to S.O., P50 CA127003 to C.S.F. The American Cancer Society (grant number MRSG-17-220-01 – NEC to M.S.). The National Institutes of Health grants K99 CA215314 and R00 CA215314 to M.S. N.K. was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018R1C1B6008822; NRF-2018R1A4A1022589); the Dongguk University Research Grant of 2017. This work was also in part supported by an Investigator Initiated Grant from the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) to KW.