Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 16 January 2020
Revised: 3 April 2020
Accepted: 22 April 2020
First Online: 18 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The ethics committee of the Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf (EC-HHU-D) raised no concerns about using all analysed cell lines for in vitro experiments and drug screening (ethics votes 2018-178 and 2019-412). All type I GCT samples were cryopreserved and anonymised during the MAKEI 96-study and provided by the MAKEI 96-biobank with no concerns raised by EC-HHU-D about analysing these samples (ethic votes 837 and 2019-822). The cell lines TCam-2 was kindly provided by Sohei Kitazawa via Hubert Schorle (Department of Developmental Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn Medical School, Bonn, Germany). 2102EP, NCCIT, NT2/D1 and the cisplatin-resistant sublines 2102EP-R, NCCIT-R and NT2/D1-R were kindly provided by Friedemann Honecker (ZeTuP Silberturm, St. Gallen, Switzerland) and Christoph Oing (Department of Oncology, Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation with Division of Pneumology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany). The cell lines JAR, JEG3 and BeWo were purchased from ATCC. MPAF and VHF2 fibroblasts were kindly provided by Michael Peitz (Core Facility Cell Programming, Life & Brain GmbH, Bonn, Germany) and Wolfgang Schulz (Department of Urology, Urological Research Lab, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany), respectively. FS1 Sertoli cells were kindly provided Valerie Schumacher (Harvard Medical School, Department of Paediatrics, Boston, MA, USA). The cell lines HaCat and HEK293 were provided by Wolfgang Schulz (Department of Urology, Urological Research Lab, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany).
: All data published in this study is available upon request to the corresponding author. Illumina gene expression microarray data are available via GEO (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) (GSE71239, GSE71269, GSE79065, GSE60698). The Illumina 450k DNA methylation array data is also available via GEO (GSE76709). The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) datasets can be accessed via the UCSC Xena browser (ExternalRef removed) and cBioPortal (ExternalRef removed).
: Pfizer Ltd and Novartis Pharma AG neither influenced interpretation of the data or writing of the manuscript nor financially supported this study, except providing the CDK4/6 inhibitors. The authors declare no competing interests.
: D.N. (CIO D), P.A. (CIO D), G.C. (CIO B) and S.S. (CIO B) cooperated in this study as part of the lighthouse project ‘Germ Cell Tumours’ of the ‘Centrum für Integrierte Onkologie – Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Düsseldorf’ (CIO ABCD). D.N. P.P. and K.K. cooperated in this study as part of the ‘Biologisch-Medizinisches Forschungszentrum’ (BMFZ) of the Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf. D.N., P.A. and F.B. cooperated in this study as members of the ‘German Testicular Cancer Study Group’ (GTCSG) of the ‘Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft’. F.B. is supported by the Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung (grant numbers 2016.041.1 and 2016.041.2). Open access funding provided by Projekt DEAL.