Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R21AI133331)
Chinese American Medical Society Summer Research Fellowship
Received: 19 March 2019
Accepted: 4 November 2019
First Online: 4 December 2019
: The authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests to disclose. M.J.S. receives research support from Allergan, Merck, Contrafect, and BioFire Diagnostics, and received consulting fees from Acahogen, Inc. and Shionogi; L.F.W. receives research support from Accelerate Diagnostics, Inc and BioFire Diagnostics, LLC; C.C. receives support from Redhill, MERCK, Rebiotix, Seres, and Finch Therapeutics.; E.P. has received speaker honoraria from Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, Seres Therapeutics, MedImmune, Novartis and Ferring Pharmaceuticals and is an inventor on patent application #WPO2015179437A1, entitled Methods and compositions for reducing <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infection and #WO2017091753A1, entitled Methods and compositions for reducing vancomycin-resistant enterococci infection or colonization and holds patents that receive royalties from Seres Therapeutics, Inc.; J.R.L. receives research support from BioFire Diagnostics, LLC. D.D., P.B., I.D.V., M.S., and J.R.L. are inventors on patent application #W02018187521A2 entitled Methods of detecting cell-free DNA in biological samples.