Funding for this research was provided by:
National Science Foundation (1651565)
US Agency for International Development Stanford King Center for Global Development
Received: 22 November 2019
Accepted: 8 April 2020
First Online: 22 May 2020
: M.B., D.L., and S.E. are co-founders of AtlasAI, a company that uses machine learning to measure economic outcomes in the developing world. A.P. and G.A. conducted the research for this paper while students or employees at Stanford, but are also now employed at AtlasAI.