Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA042090)
Received: 21 January 2020
Accepted: 24 September 2020
First Online: 3 November 2020
: L.J.B. and the spouse of N.L.S. are listed as inventors on U.S. Patent 8,080,371, ‘Markers for Addiction’ covering the use of certain SNPs in determining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of addiction. Y.G. is an employee of GeneCentric Therapeutics. Although unrelated to this research, H.R.K. is an advisory board member for Dicerna and a member of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology’s Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative, which was supported in the last 3 years by AbbVie, Alkermes, Ethypharm, Indivior, Lilly, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer, Arbor and Amygdala Neurosciences. H.R.K. and J.G. are named as inventors on PCT patent application #15/878,640 entitled: “Genotype-guided dosing of opioid agonists,” filed January 24, 2018. J.K. consulted for Pfizer in 2012–2015 on ND. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.