Accepted: 3 September 2019
First Online: 30 September 2019
: W.N.H. is an employee of Merck & Co. and a founder of Arsenal Biosciences. The La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) has received a research grant from Lyell lmmunopharma to support aspects of the work of P.G.H. on transcriptional mechanisms in CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells. E.L. receives preclinical research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb. LJI is the recipient of a research grant from Lyell lmmunopharma, which supports studies in the laboratory of A.R. using mouse models to elucidate the transcriptional and epigenetic programmes operating in CD8<sup>+</sup> tumour-infiltrating T cells. LJI has a pending patent, PCT/US201B/062354, covering the use and production of engineered immune cells to disrupt NFAT–AP-1 pathway transcription factors, including NR4A1/2/3, TOX and TOX2, with A.R. listed as one of the inventors. LJI is the recipient of a research grant from the Takeda-Sanford Innovation Alliance for research in the laboratory of A.R. related to NR4A in human CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells. N.P.R. and R.C.L. are employees of Lyell Immunopharma. A.H.S. has patents on the PD1 pathway licenced by Roche/Genentech and Novartis, consults for Novartis, is on the scientific advisory boards for Surface Oncology, Sqz Biotech, Elstar Therapeutics, Elpiscience, Selecta and Monopteros, and has research funding from Novartis, Roche, Ipsen, UCB, Quark Ventures and Merck. E.J.W. is a member of the Parker Institute for Cancer lmmunotherapy, which supported the present study. E.J.W. has consulting agreements with and/or is on the scientific advisory board for Merck, Roche, Pieris, Elstar and Surface Oncology. E.J.W. has a patent licensing agreement on the PD1 pathway with Roche/Genentech. E.J.W. is a founder of Arsenal Biosciences. B.A.Y. has patents associated with epigenetic programming of T cells. He has received honoraria for speaking at companies (less than US$5,000). The other authors declare no competing interests.