Received: 25 February 2020
Accepted: 6 August 2021
First Online: 13 October 2021
Change Date: 29 November 2021
Change Type: Correction
Change Details: A Correction to this paper has been published:
Change Details: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04185-9
: A.R., T.C., A.H., A.J., R.K., I.N., J.R. and J.Y. declare no competing interests. M.D., T.H., K.E.M.: The Rhodium Group provides independent research and analysis on a range of global economic topics to clients in the public and private sectors. This includes analysis of global energy market trends. Although some of those clients could potentially be impacted by the results of this research, both positively and negatively, Rhodium staff contributions to this research were conducted completely independently. M.G., S.H. and R.K.: we received no financial or in-kind support for the research conducted in this paper, nor have we received funding or in-kind support from any ‘interested’ parties. As part of a diversified portfolio, we each hold more than US$10,000 in stocks and bonds of various companies including those within the energy sector. No other parties have the right to review the paper before its circulation. M.G. holds the position of director at the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago and the Environment and Energy Lab at University of Chicago Labs, and is faculty director at the E2e Lab. From July 2015 to January 2017, M.G. was a member of the US Department of Energy’s Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. S.H. is the director of the Global Policy Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. R.K. previously served as a consultant to Rhodium Group, which provides independent research and analysis on a range of global economic topics to clients in the public and private sectors, including analysis of global energy market trends. R.K. currently serves as director of the Rutgers Institute of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. R.K. provided technical support to and M.G. was a co-chair of the US Federal Government Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon between September 2009 and March 2010. R.K. was an author of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report Valuing Climate Damages Updating Estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide published in 2017.