Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-21
Received: 14 May 2019
Accepted: 15 October 2019
First Online: 21 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Niigata University (approval number: 1277). The study population included 146 patients who provided written informed consent. The authors were given permission to use the DHQ from Dr. Satoshi Sasaki (Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, The University of Tokyo), who developed the DHQ and is responsible for its use.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.