Funding for this research was provided by:
Novartis Pharma (Novartis Pharma (AG))
Received: 1 March 2021
Accepted: 10 July 2021
First Online: 23 July 2021
: An independent ethics committee at all participating sites for each clinical trial approved the study protocols.
: Not applicable.
: SJT was an employee of the Cleveland Clinic during this study. He reports research grants (no personal compensation) from Allergan, Amgen Inc., ElectroCore, Eli Lilly, eNeura, Neurolief, Novartis, Scion Neurostim, Teva, and Zosano; consultant fees from Acorda, Aeon, Alexsa, Align Strategies, Allergan, Alphasights, Amgen, Aperture Venture Partners, Aralez Pharmaceuticals Canada, Axsome Therapeutics, Becker Pharmaceutical Consulting, BioDelivery Sciences International, Biohaven, Charleston Labs, CRG, Currax, Decision Resources, DeepBench, Eli Lilly, eNeura, Equinox, ExpertConnect, GLG, GSK, Guidepoint Global, Healthcare Consultancy Group, Health Science Communications, Impel, Lundbeck, M3 Global Research, Magellan Rx Management, Marcia Berenson Connected Research and Consulting, Medicxi, Navigant Consulting, Neurolief, Nordic BioTech, Novartis, Pulmatrix, Reckner Healthcare, Relevale, Revance, SAI MedPartners, Satsuma, Scion Neurostim, Slingshot Insights, Sorrento, Spherix Global Insights, Sudler and Hennessey, Synapse Medical Communications, Teva, Theranica, Thought Leader Select, Trinity Partners, XOC, Zosano; advisory boards: Acorda, Aeon, Alder, Allergan, Amgen, Aralez Pharmaceuticals Canada, Axsome Therapeutics, Biohaven, Charleston Laboratories, Currax, Eli Lilly, GSK, Impel, Lundbeck, Novartis, Satsuma, Theranica, Teva, XOC, Zosano; stock options from Nocira, Percept; salary from American Headache Society and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center; CME honoraria: American Academy of Neurology, American Headache Society, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Diamond Headache Clinic, Elsevier, Forefront Collaborative, Hamilton General Hospital, Ontario, Canada, Headache Cooperative of New England, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Inova, Medical Learning Institute Peerview, Medical Education Speakers Network, Miller Medical Communications, North American Center for CME, Physicians’ Education Resource, Rockpointe, ScientiaCME, WebMD/Medscape.MA reports personal fees from Alder, Allergan, Amgen, Eli Lilly, Novartis and Teva, has no ownership interest and does not own stocks of any pharmaceutical company. MA serves as associate editor of Cephalalgia, associate editor of The Journal of Headache and Pain, and associate editor of Headache, and is the current president of the International Headache Society.UR has acted as a consultant for Allergan, Amgen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Teva, has served on advisory boards for Allergan, Amgen, Autonomic Technologies, Eli Lilly, Medscape, Novartis, Teva, and is a member of speakers’ bureaus for Allergan, Amgen, Eli Lilly, Medscape, Novartis, StreamedUp, Teva, and has received research support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and Novartis. YH has served on advisory boards for Amgen, Novartis and Teva.GB has received unrestricted grants, honoraria, personal fees, and travel grants from Allergan, Amgen, AstraZeneca, European Headache Foundation (EHF), Fresenius, Grünenthal, Janssen Cilag, Lilly, Linde AG, Menarini, Novartis, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (ÖAW), Österreichische Gesellschaft für Neurologie (ÖGN), Österreichische Kopfschmerzgesellschaft (ÖKSG), Pfizer, Reckitt Benkiser, St. Jude Medical, and Teva.JHB has nothing to disclose.HP is an employee of and stockholder in Amgen.SC is an employee of and stockholder in Amgen.DEC is an employee of and stockholder in Amgen.FZ is an employee of and stockholder in Amgen.JK is an employee of and stockholder in Novartis.DDM is an employee of and stockholder in Amgen.