Funding for this research was provided by:
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (MIRA R35 GM122547, R01 GM089652)
Burroughs Wellcome Fund (career development award)
Royal Society (Wolfson Merit)
National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka (DGE1144152)
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (2017/18611-7)
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (research fellowship)
Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Gilliam Fellowship for Advanced Study)
Received: 17 November 2019
Accepted: 24 June 2020
First Online: 11 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Samples from Manaus, Brazil. All patients signed an informed consent form, and no children were included in the study. Sample collection was approved by Fundação de Medicina Tropical Ethical Board under the number CAAE 0044.0.114.000–11.Samples from Acre, Brazil. Informed consent was obtained from all patients or, in case of children, from their parents/guardians. Study protocols for parasite sample collection were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil (1169/CEPSH, 2014).Samples from Thailand. All patients signed an informed consent form, and no children were included in the study. The clinical samples were collected and tested in accordance with protocols approved by The Center for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine at University of Oxford (OXTREC 17–11). Five mL of whole blood were collected in lithium heparin collection tubes. Samples were cryopreserved in Glycerolyte 57 (Baxter) after leukocyte depletion using cellulose columns (Sigma cat #C6288) (Sriprawat K, et al. Effective and cheap removal of leukocytes and platelets from <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> infected blood. Malar J 8, 115; 2009).
: Not Applicable.
: The authors declare no competing interests.