Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council Canada (MR/M01987X/1)
National Institutes of Health (1R01DK104339-0, R01Hl128439, 1R01HL117004, 1R01GM113657-01)
Instituto de Salud Carlos III (AC15/00015, FI16/00136)
American Asthma Foundation
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (1P60MD006902, 1R01MD010443, U54MD009523)
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (24RT-0025)
National Science Foundation (BCS-1317217)
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
European Social Funds from the European Union (ESF invests in your future)
Ramon y Cajal (RYC-2015-17205)
Harry Wm. and Diana V Hind Distinguished Professor in Pharaceutical Sciences II
National Institutes of Health and Environmental Health Sciences (R21ES24844, R01ES015794)
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (grant METHIS (ANR-15-CE32-0009-01))
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-07-17
Received: 24 April 2019
Accepted: 8 July 2019
First Online: 17 July 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations for human subject research. The Cuba study was conducted following the ethical principles for medical research, and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Cuban Centre of Medical Genetics at the Medical University of Havana, Cuba. Each participant gave a written informed consent prior to sample collection. The Cape Verde study was approved by the Human Subjects Committees of all participant institutions and by the National Ethical Committee for Health Research of Cape Verde, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The SAGE II and GALA II studies were approved by the institutional review boards of the University of California San Francisco and all participant centres. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants or from their surrogates for participants under 18 years old.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.