Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministerium für Umwelt, Klimaschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Hessen (1234)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2020-02-10
Received: 15 April 2019
Accepted: 20 January 2020
First Online: 10 February 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Samples were taken from existing antlers and frozen tissue samples provided by those authorized to practice hunting. No animals were killed specifically for the study. No live animals were sampled and no dropping antlers were sought or collected for the study. Thus, submitting to an ethical committee was not required by national legislations. Samples were provided by the local wildlife authorities of the Rheinhardswald under the authority of the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. .
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.