Funding for this research was provided by:
Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas (#217-2006-1750)
Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
OP-RDE (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000433)
Received: 17 October 2018
Accepted: 20 May 2019
First Online: 28 May 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The research was conducted on an invertebrate insect agricultural pest species, <i>Spodoptera littoralis. S. littoralis</i> is not present on lists of endangered or protected species in Sweden. Where applicable, research was conducted in compliance with institutional, national and international ethical guidelines.
: Not Applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.