Funding for this research was provided by:
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-14-CE19-0023)
Received: 17 October 2019
Accepted: 8 January 2020
First Online: 20 January 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All the experiments were conducted according to the ethics committee of Ifremer. Oyster genitors were sampling in field and sites for sampling were accessible on foot or by boat. No permit was required to harvest oysters. A very small fraction of the oysters (< 0.1% in every site) was collected without disturbance. Except for the production of biparental families of oysters, the study did not used samples collected from the field.
: The manuscript has been seen and approved by all of the authors.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.