Funding for this research was provided by:
Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NCI
Chulabhorn Research Institute
National Cancer Center, Mongolia
National Institutes of Health
Received: 9 June 2021
Accepted: 19 October 2021
First Online: 11 November 2021
: All patients gave informed consent. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the respective institutions (NCI protocol number 13CN089; CRI protocol number 18/2555; Chulabhorn Hospital protocol number 11/2553; Thai NCI protocol number EC163/2010; Chiang Mai University protocol number TIGER-LC; Khon Kaen University protocol number HE541099). All methods were performed in a manner consistent with the approved protocols and in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations for human subjects research.
: All study participants provided informed consent.
: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.