Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R44AA027675, R44AA027675, R44AA027675, R44AA027675, R44AA027675)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (R43DA041211, R43DA041211, R43DA041211, R43DA041211)
Received: 19 December 2021
Accepted: 9 September 2022
First Online: 21 September 2022
: All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The research described herein received approvals from the Institutional Review Boards of BioRealm, Oregon Research Institute, and the University of Hawaii.
: Not applicable.
: JWB and CME are members and employees of BioRealm LLC. AWB is an employee of Oregon Research Institute and ORI Community and Evaluation Services, and serves as a Scientific Advisor and Consultant to BioRealm LLC. JWB, CSM and AWB are co-inventors on a related patent application “Biosignature Discovery for Substance Use Disorder Using Statistical Learning”, assigned to BioRealm LLC. BioRealm LLC offers genotyping and data analysis services. Other authors declare that they have no competing interests.