Funding for this research was provided by:
Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (6369100)
Putra Graduate Initiative (GP-IPS) grant (9535800)
Received: 15 May 2019
Accepted: 24 October 2019
First Online: 11 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: In this study, experiment was not performed on live vertebrates. Instead, freshly caught dead fish was used and therefore no ethics approval is required. All animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) under application number UPM/IACUC/AUP/R059/2016. Permission were obtained from the farm-owners (Personal communication) in order to collect the fish using non-lethal methods.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.