Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research and Materiel Command (W81XWH-17-C-0223)
Received: 25 November 2019
Accepted: 9 May 2020
First Online: 13 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All procedures on guinea pigs were approved by the Johns Hopkins University Animal Care and Use Committee and by the Animal Care and Use Review Office of the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (Fort Detrick, MD). We adhered to the Animal Welfare Act Regulations and other federal statutes relating to animals and experiments involving animals and the principles set forth in the current version of the <i>Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals</i>, National Research Council.
: Not applicable.
: CJ.C. Hsia holds shares in AntiRadical Therapeutics, LLC, which holds the license for polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin. The remaining authors declare no other relevant financial disclosures or competing interests.