Funding for this research was provided by:
National Key Research and Development Program of China (2014CB138703)
National Natural Science Foundation of China (31770763)
National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC0500506)
The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (lzujbky-2017-54)
The Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT_17R50)
The 111 project (B12002)
Received: 29 May 2019
Accepted: 17 October 2019
First Online: 8 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study has not directly involved humans or animals. The leaves, stems, roots, flowers, flower buds, early developing seeds, mid-developing seeds and mature seeds were collected from <i>A. sphaerocephala</i> plants growing in the Alxa Desert of Inner Mongolia, northwest China (N: 38°68′, E: 105°61′). No specific permission was required for use of these materials for experimental purposes. The seeds after 3 and 7 days of germination, seedlings, and six different callus tissues were collected from the laboratory of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China as per standard practices, and samples were harvested at the required time. We comply with the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.