Funding for this research was provided by:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (31471853)
Agriculture Research System of China (CARS-27)
Advanced Talents Foundation of Qingdao Agricultural University (631436)
Qingdao Science and Technology Program (No. 12-1-4-5-(1)-jch)
Received: 1 August 2019
Accepted: 24 March 2020
First Online: 8 April 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All the plant materials used in the present study were grown and collected according to institutional and national guidelines. No field study was included in this study. Apple ‘Fuji’ used in this study is a common fruit-tree cultivar cultured worldwide and <i>Nicotiana benthamiana</i> is a widely used model plant species for research of plant-pathogen interactions. Both plant materials were originally obtained via a commercial approach and are not the Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, thus no voucher specimen of this material has been deposited in a publicly available herbarium.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.