Received: 25 September 2020
Accepted: 31 March 2021
First Online: 19 April 2021
: The study used de-identified data from the institutional Anesthesia Research Data Repository, which combines perioperative data from several hospital information management systems and was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Committee on Clinical Investigations, protocol number: 2018P000666). The requirement for informed written consent was waived by the IRB.The performance improvement intervention was determined by the institutional review board at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center as a quality improvement project that does not constitute human subject research (Committee on Clinical Investigations, protocol number: 2020D000036).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.