Funding for this research was provided by:
British Heart Foundation (SP/13/6/30554, RG/10/12/28456, FS/18/23/33512)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-10-29
Received: 12 April 2019
Accepted: 19 August 2019
First Online: 29 October 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Local ethics committees for studies contributing data to these analyses granted approval for the work.
: Not applicable
: Dr. Holmes has collaborated with Boehringer Ingelheim in research, and in accordance with the policy of the The Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (University of Oxford), did not accept any personal payment. David Preiss consulted for Amgen on a single occasion but, in accordance with the policy of the Clinical Trial Service Unit (University of Oxford), did not accept any personal payment. He is an investigator on a clinical trial of the PCSK9 synthesis inhibitor, inclisiran, funded by a grant to the University of Oxford by the Medicines Company, but he receives no personal fees from this grant. Daniel I Swerdlow is an employee of BenevolentAI Ltd. Aroon Hingorani and Harry Hemingway are National Institute for Health Research Senior Investigators. Naveed Sattar consulted for Amgen and Sanofi related to PCSK9 inhibitors; and was an investigator on clinical trials of PCSK9 inhibition funded by Amgen. Naveed Sattar has also consulted for Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Eli-Lilly and NovoNordisk. Daniel Swerdlow has consulted to Pfizer for work unrelated to this paper. Folkert W. Asselbergs is supported by UCL Hospitals NIHR Biomedical Research Centre. Dr. Patel has received honoraria and speaker fees from Sanofi, Amgen and Bayer. Kees Hovingh or his institution (AMC) received honoraria for consultancy, ad boards, and/or conduct of clinical trials from: AMGEN, Aegerion, Pfizer, Astra Zeneca, Sanofi, Regeneron, KOWA, Ionis pharmaceuticals and Cerenis. Bertrand Cariou has received research funding from Pfizer and Sanofi, received honoraria from AstraZeneca, Pierre Fabre, Janssen, Eli-Lilly, MSD Merck & Co., Novo-Nordisk, Sanofi, and Takeda, and has acted as a consultant/advisory panel member for Amgen, Eli Lilly, Novo-Nordisk, Sanofi, and Regeneron. Andrzej Pająk acted as a consultant/advisory pannel member for Amgen. Erik Ingelsson is a scientific advisor for Precision Wellness and Olink Proteomics for work unrelated to this paper. JCH is a scientific advisor to a clinical trial of PCSK9 inhibition. AE Honoraria: Takeda, BMS, Amgen; Consulting: Takeda, BMS, Amgen. SEH acknowledges BHF funding (PG008/08) and support from the UCL BRC. All other authors declare no competing interests.