Funding for this research was provided by:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (R01HS022694)
Received: 2 April 2020
Accepted: 5 August 2020
First Online: 2 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate: This research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of both the University of Massachusetts Medical School where the research originated (H00001721) and the Ohio State University College of Medicine where the research was completed (2018H0111). Consent to participate in the survey conducted as part of this research and have survey responses anonymously linked patient-level administrative data was via presumed consent based on completion of mailed or electronic surgery and was approved by the University of Massachusetts Ethics Board where the survey was completed in its entirely. Retrospective analysis of patient-level administrative data was conducted with a waiver of consent approved by both involved ethics boards because study subjects would not be involved in any new contact or study interventions, all data were based on billing data collected and de-identified by third party vendors before purchase and release to the investigators, and because all third party data use policies designed to protect patient anonymity were followed as assured in our ethics board approval applications.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.