Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council (MR/P015190/1)
Received: 17 August 2020
Accepted: 19 May 2021
First Online: 4 July 2021
: Patients were included if they provided consent for their anonymous data to be included in the secure database but were excluded if they were under 18 or unable to consent due to learning disabilities, unconsciousness, mental illness, young age, or dementia. Data were prospectively entered into an encrypted Internet database and validated by surgeons at the spine centres, anonymised at point of entry. Ethical regulatory approval was granted for all centres (in the UK, NRES registration 08/H0714/44).
: Not applicable
: The authors declare no competing interests.