Funding for this research was provided by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (PF950/1-1, FL658/4-2, Ho 1926/1-3)
Received: 29 December 2020
Accepted: 22 July 2021
First Online: 17 August 2021
: This study does not include human subjects. Data presented here are from the <i>Fundus Autofluorescence in AMD</i> (FAM) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00393692) and the <i>Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy</i> (DSGA) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02051998). The FAM study was approved by the human ethics committees at the University of Bonn and the local Institutional Review Boards and the local ethics committees at the study centers (University of Bonn, University of Heidelberg, University of Leipzig, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, St. Franziskus Hospital Münster, University of Würzburg). The human ethics committees at the University of Bonn approved the DSGA study. All research adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants provided informed consent.
: All authors have read and approved the submission of the manuscript.
: Financial disclosures:S. Schmitz-Valckenberg reports grants from Acucela/Kubota Vision, personal fees from Apellis, grants and personal fees from Novartis, grants and personal fees from Allergan, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Bioeq/Formycon, grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Carl Zeiss MediTec AG, grants and non-financial support from Centervue, personal fees from Galimedix, grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Heidelberg Engineering, grants from Katairo, non-financial support from Optos, personal fees from Oxurion, outside the submitted work.M. Fleckenstein reports grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Heidelberg Engineering, non-financial support from Zeiss Meditech, grants and non-financial support from Optos, personal fees and grant from Novartis, personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Genentech, from Roche, outside the submitted work; In addition, Dr. Fleckenstein has a patent US20140303013 A1 pending.F.G. Holz reports grants and personal fees from Acucela, Allergan, Apellis, Bayer, Bioeq/Formycon, Roche/Genentech, Geuder, Heidelberg Engineering, ivericbio, Kanghong, Novartis, Zeiss; personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, Grayburg Vision, LinBioscience, Pixium Vision, Stealth BioTherapeutics, Aerie, Oxurion outside the submitted work.M. Schmid reports personal fees from Pixium Vision.The remaining authors have no competing interest.