Received: 27 July 2020
Accepted: 22 September 2021
First Online: 14 November 2021
: The core data used in the collaboration stem from Novartis clinical trials, approved by institutional review boards or ethics committees. All trials were conducted in accordance with the provisions of the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for Good Clinical Practice and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. No human data or analyses from human data are published in this article.
: Not applicable.
: Some of the work for this article was performed while Khaled El Emam was with IQVIA where he led the Privacy Analytics business, before he joined the University of Ottawa / CHEO Research Institute. All other authors declare they have no competing interests.