Received: 9 July 2018
Accepted: 10 October 2019
First Online: 12 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is an ongoing nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of middle-aged and elderly adults in China that is managed by the National School for Development (China Center for Economic Research) at Peking University (PKU). Consistent with the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) family of surveys that study aging, the CHARLS is publicly available and de-identified. The biomedical ethics committee of Beijing University approved the study and informed consents was obtained from all participants.
: Not Applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.