Received: 13 July 2020
Accepted: 12 November 2020
First Online: 20 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Research Ethics Committee of all participating institutions at the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) SPICE study group. Given the retrospective and anonymized nature of this study in the routine care, the Ethics Committees waived the need for informed consent from the study participants. The Institutional Review Board of Hokkaido University, a leading institution in SPICE, approved this study (approval no. 016–0386).
: Not applicable.
: All authors declare that they have no competing interests.