Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport
Health Research Council of New Zealand
Medical Research Council
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (21590775, 21330155)
Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga
Heart Foundation New Zealand
Rotorua Energy Charitable Trust and Ministry of Health
Keio University Global research Institute
Received: 18 September 2020
Accepted: 9 July 2021
First Online: 9 August 2021
: Leiden 85-plus Study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the Leiden University Medical Center. LiLACS NZ was granted ethical approval by the Northern X Regional Ethics Committee (NTX 09/09/088) in December 2009. Newcastle 85+ study was approved by the Newcastle and North Tyneside local research ethics committee (06/Q0905/2). TOOTH was approved by the ethical committee of the Keio University School of Medicine (N0. 20070047, Dec2007). Written informed consent from all studies were obtained from the participants or by their proxy if necessary.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.