Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPPGH5231)
German Armed Forces (03K2-S-450709)
UBS Optimus Foundation
Received: 23 May 2017
Accepted: 9 January 2018
First Online: 19 January 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All participants were informed about the study’s purpose and procedures. Prior to sample collection, written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of the participating children. Ethical approval for the study was attained from the Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics, School of Medical Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana and the Institutional Review Board of the International Vaccine Institute (IVI), Seoul, Korea.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.