Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD068174)
Yale University School of Public Health Downs' Fellowship
Received: 18 June 2018
Accepted: 9 June 2019
First Online: 26 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Written consent was obtained from the adult or the parents/guardians for participation of their children in this study, with assent forms used for children ages 7 to 8 years of age. T; translators will be used if necessary. Informed consent was performed in local languages and, if unable to read/write, a fingerprint and witness was obtained. The study was approved by the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology and Makerere University School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (Kampala, Uganda; approval #2011–136), the University of California, San Francisco Committee on Human Research (San Francisco, CA; approval # 10–04798), and the Yale University Human Investigations Committee (New Haven, CT; approval #2000022802).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.