First Online: 16 September 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics approval for the study was granted by the South African Medical Research Council Ethics Committee in 2009 (IRB identifier- FWA00002753) and Provincial Ethics Committees in all 9 provinces. The study was also reviewed according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) human subjects procedures, and approved as research. All mothers/legal caregivers signed informed consent.
: All authors have reviewed manuscript and approve/consent to publication. The manuscript was also reviewed and approved by the Associate Director for Science Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, SA & USA and Office of the Associate Director for Health, UNICEF, USA.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.