Funding for this research was provided by:
Key Technologies Research and Development Program (2013ZX10004202-001-004, 2018ZX10713002)
Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (No. C2007000944, H2015303009)
Received: 2 April 2019
Accepted: 25 August 2019
First Online: 2 September 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for this research was granted by Ethics Committee of Hebei Center for Disease Control and Prevention (review approval number IRB(P)2016–001). The epidemiological data of cases were coded to be anonymous such that it is not possible to identify individual patients. All treatment of animals were also under the ethics permission. Capturing rats in residential areas have obtained individual consent from local residents.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.