Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U54GM088558)
Received: 2 August 2019
Accepted: 18 February 2020
First Online: 22 February 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Our work is based on publicly available, existing aggregate (state-level) data, with no informed consent from the participants sought, and no approval from ethics committees requested.
: Not Applicable.
: Dr. Lipsitch reports grants from NIH/NIGMS, during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Affinivax, personal fees from Merck, grants and personal fees from Pfizer, grants from PATH Vaccine Solutions, outside the submitted work. Edward Goldstein reports no competing interests.