Received: 9 September 2020
Accepted: 24 January 2021
First Online: 30 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The 2015/16 MDHS was implemented by the NSO and the Community Health Sciences Unit (CHSU). The protocols and procedures that were developed for data collection were reviewed and approved by the ICF Macro Institutional Review Board (ICF Macro IRB) and the Malawi National Health Science Research Committee. The MDHS 2015–2016 complied with all requirements of the US Department of Health and Human Services’ the 45 Code of Federal Regulations 46 (45 CFR 46), Protection of Human Subjects [CitationRef removed]. Before this study was conducted, the authors sought permission from the MEASURE DHS for use of the data beyond the primary purpose by which data were collected. At the beginning of each interview, informed consent (both written and oral consent) was obtained from all eligible participants. Furthermore, a parent or guardian provided consent prior to the participation by a child or anybody below the age of 18 years [CitationRef removed]. Overall, data obtained from respondents under the DHS program is anonymous as names are of the participants are not written down thus ethics approval for this study was not required.
: Not applicable.
: The author declares that he has no competing interests.