Received: 15 October 2021
Accepted: 17 June 2022
First Online: 20 July 2022
: Written informed consent was obtained from each substudy participant. Study conduct adhered to international guidelines, and the substudy was approved by an institutional review board or ethics committee at each site and corresponding collaborating institutions in the United States. Ethics committees and institutional review boards that approved this study include—MUJHU/Kampala, Uganda: The Joint Clinical Research Centre (JCRC) IRB, the National Drug Authority in Uganda and the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) IRB in the U.S.; Wits RHI Shandukani CRS and Soweto IMPAACT CRS, Johannesburg, South Africa: University of Witwatersrand Human Ethics Research Committee (Medical), Medicines Control Council (South African Health Products Regulatory Authority in February 2018); FAM-CRU CRS, Cape town, South Africa: Health Research Ethics Committee (HREC), Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Medicines Control Council (South African Health Products Regulatory Authority in February 2018); CAPRISA Umlazi CRS, Durban, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) Biomedical Research Ethics Committee, Medicines Control Council (South African Health Products Regulatory Authority in February 2018);George CRS, Lusaka, Zambia: University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill Biomedical IRB and University of Zambia Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (UNZABREC); Harare, Seke North and St. Mary’s sites, Zimbabwe: Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (MRCZ), Research Council of Zimbabwe (RCZ), Medicine Control Authority of Zimbabwe (MCAZ), Joint Parirenyatwa group of Hospitals/University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee (JREC); Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College (BJMC) CRS, Pune, India: BJ Government College CTU Ethics Committee and Johns Hopkins IRB; Blantyre, Malawi: College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (COMREC) in Malawi, Pharmacy, Medicines and Poisons Board and Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) IRB in the U.S.; Lilongwe, Malawi: National Health Sciences Research Committee (NHSRC) in Malawi Pharmacy, Medicines and Poisons Board, and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) Office of Human Research Ethics IRB in the U.S and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania: Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College Ethics Committee, National HREC and Tanzania Medicines and Medical Devices Authority.
: Not applicable.
: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.